Otaku may be used as a pejorative; its negativity stems from the stereotypical view of otaku and the media's reporting on Tsutomu Miyazaki, "The Otaku Murderer", in 1989.
According to studies published in 2013, the term has become less negative, and an increasing number of people now self-identify as otaku, both in Japan and elsewhere.
The 1989 "Otaku Murderer" case gave a negative connotation to the fandom from which it has not fully recovered.
The usage of "(interest) otaku", however, is used for teasing or self-deprecation, but the unqualified term remains negative.
Morikawa Kaichirō identifies the subculture as distinctly Japanese, a product of the school system and society.
The usage of the word is a source of contention among some fans, owing to its negative connotations and stereotyping of the fandom.
Widespread English exposure to the term came in 1988 with the release of Gunbuster, which referred to anime fans as otaku.
Later that year, the contemporary knowledge magazine Bessatsu Takarajima dedicated its 104th issue to the topic of otaku.
It was called Otaku no Hon The word entered English as a loanword from the Japanese language.